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Additional suburbs soon developed and increased the area and population of Berlin. In , neighbouring suburbs including Wedding , Moabit and several others were incorporated into Berlin.
In the early 20th century, Berlin had become a fertile ground for the German Expressionist movement.
At the end of the First World War in , a republic was proclaimed by Philipp Scheidemann at the Reichstag building. In , the Greater Berlin Act incorporated dozens of suburban cities, villages and estates around Berlin into an expanded city.
The population almost doubled and Berlin had a population of around four million. During the Weimar era , Berlin underwent political unrest due to economic uncertainties, but also became a renowned centre of the Roaring Twenties.
The metropolis experienced its heyday as a major world capital and was known for its leadership roles in science, technology, arts, the humanities, city planning, film, higher education, government and industries.
Albert Einstein rose to public prominence during his years in Berlin, being awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in In , Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party came to power.
NSDAP rule diminished Berlin's Jewish community from , one-third of all Jews in the country to about 80, as a result of emigration between and After Kristallnacht in , thousands of the city's Jews were imprisoned in the nearby Sachsenhausen concentration camp.
Starting in early , many were shipped to death camps , such as Auschwitz. The Allies dropped 67, tons of bombs on the city, destroying 6, acres of the built up area.
Around , civilians were killed. The victorious powers divided the city into four sectors, analogous to the occupation zones into which Germany was divided.
All four Allies shared administrative responsibilities for Berlin. However, in , when the Western Allies extended the currency reform in the Western zones of Germany to the three western sectors of Berlin, the Soviet Union imposed a blockade on the access routes to and from West Berlin, which lay entirely inside Soviet-controlled territory.
The Berlin airlift , conducted by the three western Allies, overcame this blockade by supplying food and other supplies to the city from June to May West Berlin officially remained an occupied city, but it politically was aligned with the Federal Republic of Germany despite West Berlin's geographic isolation.
The founding of the two German states increased Cold War tensions. West Berlin was surrounded by East German territory, and East Germany proclaimed the Eastern part as its capital, a move the western powers did not recognize.
East Berlin included most of the city's historic centre. The West German government established itself in Bonn.
John F. Kennedy gave his " Ich bin ein Berliner " speech in , underlining the US support for the Western part of the city. Berlin was completely divided.
Although it was possible for Westerners to pass to the other side through strictly controlled checkpoints, for most Easterners travel to West Berlin or West Germany was prohibited by the government of East Germany.
In , with the end of the Cold War and pressure from the East German population, the Berlin Wall fell on 9 November and was subsequently mostly demolished.
Today, the East Side Gallery preserves a large portion of the wall. On 3 October , the two parts of Germany were reunified as the Federal Republic of Germany and Berlin again became a reunified city.
Walter Momper , the mayor of West Berlin, became the first mayor of the reunified city in the interim. City-wide elections in December resulted in the first "all Berlin" mayor being elected to take office in January , with the separate offices of mayors in East and West Berlin expiring by that time, and Eberhard Diepgen a former mayor of West Berlin became the first elected mayor of a reunited Berlin.
On 20 June , the Bundestag German Parliament voted to move the seat of the German capital from Bonn to Berlin, which was completed in Berlin's administrative reform merged several districts.
The number of boroughs was reduced from 23 to In , the German parliament voted to allow the reconstruction of the Berlin Palace , which started in and will be finished in In a terrorist attack linked to ISIL , a truck was deliberately driven into a Christmas market next to the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church , leaving 12 people dead and 56 others injured.
Berlin is in northeastern Germany , in an area of low-lying marshy woodlands with a mainly flat topography , part of the vast Northern European Plain which stretches all the way from northern France to western Russia.
The Berliner Urstromtal an ice age glacial valley , between the low Barnim Plateau to the north and the Teltow plateau to the south, was formed by meltwater flowing from ice sheets at the end of the last Weichselian glaciation.
The Spree follows this valley now. In Spandau, a borough in the west of Berlin, the Spree empties into the river Havel , which flows from north to south through western Berlin.
Substantial parts of present-day Berlin extend onto the low plateaus on both sides of the Spree Valley.
The borough of Spandau lies partly within the Berlin Glacial Valley and partly on the Nauen Plain, which stretches to the west of Berlin.
Since , the highest elevation in Berlin is found on the Arkenberge hills in Pankow, at metres feet. Through the dumping of construction debris, they surpassed Teufelsberg Due to its transitional climate zones, frosts are common in winter and there are larger temperature differences between seasons than typical for many oceanic climates.
Furthermore, Berlin is classified as a temperate continental climate Dc under the Trewartha climate scheme , as well as the suburbs of New York City , although the Köppen system puts them in different types.
Spring and autumn are generally chilly to mild. Berlin's built-up area creates a microclimate, with heat stored by the city's buildings and pavement.
Snowfall mainly occurs from December through March. Berlin's history has left the city with a polycentric organization and a highly eclectic array of architecture and buildings.
The city's appearance today is predominantly shaped by the key role it played in Germany's history in the 20th century. Berlin was devastated by bombing raids , fires and street battles during World War II, and many of the buildings that remained after the war were demolished in the post-war period in both West and East Berlin.
Much of this demolition was initiated by municipal architecture programs to build new residential or business quarters and main roads.
Many ornaments of pre-war buildings were destroyed following modernist dogmas , while in both systems and in reunified Berlin, various important heritage monuments were also partly reconstructed , including the Forum Fridericianum with e.
A number of new buildings are inspired by historical predecessors or the general classical style of Berlin, such as Hotel Adlon.
Clusters of high-rise buildings emerge at disperse locations, e. Potsdamer Platz , City West , and Alexanderplatz , the latter two representing the previous centers of West and East Berlin, respectively, and the former representing the new Berlin of the 21st century built upon the previous no-man's land of the Berlin Wall.
Berlin has three of the top 40 tallest buildings in Germany. Built in , it is visible throughout most of the central districts of Berlin.
Starting here the Karl-Marx-Allee heads east, an avenue lined by monumental residential buildings, designed in the Socialist Classicism style.
Adjacent to this area is the Rotes Rathaus City Hall , with its distinctive red-brick architecture. In front of it is the Neptunbrunnen , a fountain featuring a mythological group of Tritons , personifications of the four main Prussian rivers and Neptune on top of it.
The Brandenburg Gate is an iconic landmark of Berlin and Germany; it stands as a symbol of eventful European history and of unity and peace.
The Reichstag building is the traditional seat of the German Parliament. It was remodelled by British architect Norman Foster in the s and features a glass dome over the session area, which allows free public access to the parliamentary proceedings and magnificent views of the city.
The East Side Gallery is an open-air exhibition of art painted directly on the last existing portions of the Berlin Wall. It is the largest remaining evidence of the city's historical division.
The Gendarmenmarkt is a neoclassical square in Berlin, the name of which derives from the headquarters of the famous Gens d'armes regiment located here in the 18th century.
It is bordered by two similarly designed cathedrals, the Französischer Dom with its observation platform and the Deutscher Dom. Restoration and construction of a main entrance to all museums, as well as reconstruction of the Stadtschloss continues.
Peter's Basilica in Rome. A large crypt houses the remains of some of the earlier Prussian royal family. Hedwig's Cathedral is Berlin's Roman Catholic cathedral.
Unter den Linden is a tree-lined east—west avenue from the Brandenburg Gate to the site of the former Berliner Stadtschloss, and was once Berlin's premier promenade.
Many Classical buildings line the street and part of Humboldt University is there. It combines 20th-century traditions with the modern architecture of today's Berlin.
Potsdamer Platz is an entire quarter built from scratch after the Wall came down. The area around Hackescher Markt is home to fashionable culture, with countless clothing outlets, clubs, bars, and galleries.
This includes the Hackesche Höfe , a conglomeration of buildings around several courtyards, reconstructed around The nearby New Synagogue is the center of Jewish culture.
Its name commemorates the uprisings in East Berlin of 17 June This monument, built to commemorate Prussia's victories, was relocated in —39 from its previous position in front of the Reichstag.
The Kurfürstendamm is home to some of Berlin's luxurious stores with the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church at its eastern end on Breitscheidplatz.
The church was destroyed in the Second World War and left in ruins. The Rathaus Schöneberg , where John F. Kennedy made his famous " Ich bin ein Berliner!
West of the center, Bellevue Palace is the residence of the German President. Charlottenburg Palace , which was burnt out in the Second World War, is the largest historical palace in Berlin.
The Oberbaumbrücke over the Spree river is Berlin's most iconic bridge, connecting the now-combined boroughs of Friedrichshain and Kreuzberg.
It carries vehicles, pedestrians, and the U1 Berlin U-Bahn line. The bridge was completed in a brick gothic style in , replacing the former wooden bridge, with an upper deck for the U-Bahn.
The center portion was demolished in to stop the Red Army from crossing. After the war, the repaired bridge served as a checkpoint and border crossing between the Soviet and American sectors, and later between East and West Berlin.
In the mids it was closed to vehicles, and after the construction of the Berlin Wall in , pedestrian traffic was heavily restricted. Following German reunification, the center portion was reconstructed with a steel frame, and U-Bahn service resumed in At the end of , the city-state of Berlin had 3.
Berlin is the most populous city proper in the EU. The urban area of Berlin had about 4. The number of deaths was 32, Almost 2.
More than , families with children under the age of 18 lived in Berlin. In the German capital registered a migration surplus of approximately 40, people.
National and international migration into the city has a long history. In , after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in France, the city responded with the Edict of Potsdam , which guaranteed religious freedom and tax-free status to French Huguenot refugees for ten years.
The Greater Berlin Act in incorporated many suburbs and surrounding cities of Berlin. It formed most of the territory that comprises modern Berlin and increased the population from 1.
Active immigration and asylum politics in West Berlin triggered waves of immigration in the s and s. Berlin is home to at least , Turkish and Turkish German residents,  making it the largest Turkish community outside of Turkey.
In the s the Aussiedlergesetze enabled immigration to Germany of some residents from the former Soviet Union.
Today ethnic Germans from countries of the former Soviet Union make up the largest portion of the Russian-speaking community.
In December , there were , registered residents of foreign nationality and another , German citizens with a "migration background" Migrationshintergrund, MH ,  meaning they or one of their parents immigrated to Germany after Foreign residents of Berlin originate from about different countries.
German is the official and predominant spoken language in Berlin. It is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
German is one of 24 languages of the European Union,  and one of the three working languages of the European Commission. Berlinerisch or Berlinisch is not a dialect linguistically, but has features of Lausitzisch-neumärkisch dialects.
It is spoken in Berlin and the surrounding metropolitan area. It originates from a Mark Brandenburgish variant.
The dialect is now seen more as a sociolect , largely through increased immigration and trends among the educated population to speak standard German in everyday life.
Turkish, Arabic, Kurdish and Serbo-Croatian are heard more often in the western part, due to the large Middle Eastern and former-Yugoslavian communities.
According to the census, approximately 37 percent of the population reported being members of a legally-recognized church or religious organization.
The rest either did not belong to such an organization, or there was no information available about them. According to the EKBO, their membership accounted for It does not keep records of members of other religious organizations which may collect their own church tax, in this way.
In , approximately , Muslims were reported by the Office of Statistics to be members of Mosques and Islamic religious organizations in Berlin,  while in , the newspaper Der Tagesspiegel estimated that about , Muslims observed Ramadan in Berlin.
About 0. Of the estimated population of 30,—45, Jewish residents,  approximately 12, are registered members of religious organizations.
Furthermore, Berlin is the seat of many Orthodox cathedrals, such as the Cathedral of St. The faithful of the different religions and denominations maintain many places of worship in Berlin.
Berlin has more than 80 mosques,  ten synagogues,  and two Buddhist temples. Since the reunification on 3 October , Berlin has been one of the three city states in Germany among the present 16 states of Germany.
The House of Representatives Abgeordnetenhaus functions as the city and state parliament, which currently has seats.
Berlin's executive body is the Senate of Berlin Senat von Berlin. The Senate consists of the Governing Mayor Regierender Bürgermeister and up to eight senators holding ministerial positions, one of them holding the title of "Mayor" Bürgermeister as deputy to the Governing Mayor.
Since this office has been held by Michael Müller of the Social Democrats. Berlin is subdivided into 12 boroughs or districts Bezirke.
Each borough has a number of subdistricts or neighborhoods Ortsteile , which have roots in much older municipalities that predate the formation of Greater Berlin on 1 October These subdistricts became urbanized and incorporated into the city later on.
Many residents strongly identify with their neighbourhoods, colloquially called Kiez. At present, Berlin consists of 96 subdistricts, which are commonly made up of several smaller residential areas or quarters.
Each borough is governed by a borough council Bezirksamt consisting of five councilors Bezirksstadträte including the borough's mayor Bezirksbürgermeister.
The council is elected by the borough assembly Bezirksverordnetenversammlung. However, the individual boroughs are not independent municipalities, but subordinate to the Senate of Berlin.
The borough's mayors make up the council of mayors Rat der Bürgermeister , which is led by the city's Governing Mayor and advises the Senate.
The neighborhoods have no local government bodies. Berlin maintains official partnerships with 17 cities.
East Berlin's partnerships were canceled at the time of German reunification but later partially reestablished. West Berlin's partnerships had previously been restricted to the borough level.
During the Cold War era, the partnerships had reflected the different power blocs, with West Berlin partnering with capitals in the Western World, and East Berlin mostly partnering with cities from the Warsaw Pact and its allies.
Berlin's official sister cities are: . Apart from sister cities, there are also several city and district partnerships that Berlin districts have established.
For example, the district of Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg has a partnership with the Israeli city of Kiryat Yam. Berlin is the capital of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The President of Germany , whose functions are mainly ceremonial under the German constitution , has their official residence in Bellevue Palace.
Facing the Chancellery is the Bundestag , the German Parliament, housed in the renovated Reichstag building since the government's relocation to Berlin in The Bundesrat "federal council", performing the function of an upper house is the representation of the federal states Bundesländer of Germany and has its seat at the former Prussian House of Lords.
The Federal Chancellery building , seat of the Chancellor of Germany. The Reichstag , seat of the Bundestag. Schloss Bellevue , seat of the President of Germany.
The relocation of the federal government and Bundestag to Berlin was mostly completed in , however some ministries as well as some minor departments stayed in the federal city Bonn , the former capital of West Germany.
Discussions about moving the remaining ministries and departments to Berlin continue. Berlin hosts in total foreign embassies  as well as the headquarters of many think tanks, trade unions, non-profit organizations, lobbying groups, and professional associations.
Due to the influence and international partnerships of the Federal Republic of Germany, the capital city has become a significant centre of German and European affairs.
Frequent official visits, and diplomatic consultations among governmental representatives and national leaders are common in contemporary Berlin.
In , the total labour force in Berlin was 1. The unemployment rate reached a year low in November and stood at Around , jobs were added in this period.
Important economic sectors in Berlin include life sciences, transportation, information and communication technologies, media and music, advertising and design, biotechnology, environmental services, construction, e-commerce, retail, hotel business, and medical engineering.
Research and development have economic significance for the city. Many German and international companies have business or service centers in the city.
For several years Berlin has been recognized as a major center of business founders. As of , the three largest banks headquartered in the capital were Deutsche Kreditbank , Landesbank Berlin and Berlin Hyp.
Daimler manufactures cars, and BMW builds motorcycles in Berlin. The Pharmaceuticals division of Bayer  and Berlin Chemie are major pharmaceutical companies in the city.
Berlin had hotels with , beds in According to figures from the International Congress and Convention Association in Berlin became the leading organizer of conferences in the world hosting international meetings.
Its main exhibition area covers more than , square metres 1,, square feet. The creative arts and entertainment business is an important part of Berlin's economy.
In , around 30, creative companies operated in the Berlin-Brandenburg metropolitan region, predominantly SMEs. Generating a revenue of Berlin is an important centre in the European and German film industry.
In addition around 20 news agencies, more than 90 regional daily newspapers and their websites, as well as the Berlin offices of more than 22 national publications such as Der Spiegel , and Die Zeit re-enforce the capital's position as Germany's epicenter for influential debate.
Therefore, many international journalists, bloggers and writers live and work in the city. Berlin is the central location to several international and regional television and radio stations.
Berlin has Germany's largest number of daily newspapers, with numerous local broadsheets Berliner Morgenpost , Berliner Zeitung , Der Tagesspiegel , and three major tabloids , as well as national dailies of varying sizes, each with a different political affiliation, such as Die Welt , Neues Deutschland , and Die Tageszeitung.
Berlin is also the headquarter of major German-language publishing houses like Walter de Gruyter , Springer , the Ullstein Verlagsgruppe publishing group , Suhrkamp and Cornelsen are all based in Berlin.
Each of which publish books, periodicals, and multimedia products. According to Mercer , Berlin ranked number 13 in the Quality of living city ranking in According to Monocle , Berlin occupies the position of the 6th-most-livable city in the world.
Berlin's transport infrastructure is highly complex, providing a diverse range of urban mobility. In , around 7, mostly beige colored taxicabs were in service.
Since , a number of app based e-car and e-scooter sharing services have evolved. Long-distance rail lines connect Berlin with all of the major cities of Germany and with many cities in neighboring European countries.
Regional rail lines of the Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg provide access to the surrounding regions of Brandenburg and to the Baltic Sea.
The Berlin Hauptbahnhof is the largest grade-separated railway station in Europe. It also runs an SXF airport express rail service, as well as trains to several international destinations like Vienna , Prague , Zürich , Warsaw , Budapest and Amsterdam.
Similarly to other German cities, there is an increasing quantity of intercity bus services. The city has more than 10 stations  that run buses to destinations throughout Germany and Europe, being Zentraler Omnibusbahnhof Berlin the biggest station.
Berlin has two commercial international airports. Both airports together handled In , 67 airlines served destinations in 50 countries from Berlin.
Schönefeld serves as an important destination for airlines like Germania , easyJet and Ryanair. The new Berlin Brandenburg Airport BER began construction in , with the intention of replacing the existing airports as the single commercial airport of Berlin.
Berlin is well known for its highly developed bicycle lane system. From until Berlin had an extensive pneumatic postal network , which at its peak in , totalled kilometres length.
After the system was split in two separated networks. The West Berlin system in operation and open for public use until , and for government use until The East Berlin system which inherited the Hauptelegraphenamt , the central hub of the system, was in operation until Both offer electric power and natural gas supply.
Some of the city's electric energy is imported from nearby power plants in southern Brandenburg. As of [update] the five largest power plants measured by capacity are the Heizkraftwerk Reuter West, the Heizkraftwerk Lichterfelde, the Heizkraftwerk Mitte, the Heizkraftwerk Wilmersdorf, and the Heizkraftwerk Charlottenburg.
All of these power stations generate electricity and useful heat at the same time to facilitate buffering during load peaks. In the power grid connections in the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region were renewed.
The Berlin kV electric line is the backbone of the city's energy grid. Berlin has a long history of discoveries in medicine and innovations in medical technology.
Rudolf Virchow was the founder of cellular pathology, while Robert Koch developed vaccines for anthrax, cholera, and tuberculosis.
The scientific research at these institutions is complemented by many research departments of companies such as Siemens and Bayer.
The World Health Summit and several international health related conventions are held annually in Berlin. This system transmits compressed digital audio , digital video and other data in an MPEG transport stream.
Berlin has installed several hundred free public Wireless LAN sites across the capital since The wireless networks are concentrated mostly in central districts; hotspots indoor and outdoor access points are installed.
The Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute develops mobile and stationary broadband communication networks and multimedia systems. Focal points are photonic components and systems , fiber optic sensor systems, and image signal processing and transmission.
Future applications for broadband networks are developed as well. As of [update] , Berlin had schools, teaching , children in 13, classes and 56, trainees in businesses and elsewhere.
After completing primary school, students continue to the Sekundarschule a comprehensive school or Gymnasium college preparatory school.
Berlin has a special bilingual school program in the Europaschule , in which children are taught the curriculum in German and a foreign language, starting in primary school and continuing in high school.
Kennedy School , a bilingual German—American public school in Zehlendorf , is particularly popular with children of diplomats and the English-speaking expatriate community.
The Berlin-Brandenburg capital region is one of the most prolific centres of higher education and research in Germany and Europe.
Historically, 67 Nobel Prize winners are affiliated with the Berlin-based universities. The city has four public research universities and more than 30 private, professional, and technical colleges Hochschulen , offering a wide range of disciplines.
The three largest universities combined have approximately , enrolled students. The city has a high density of internationally renowned research institutions, such as the Fraunhofer Society , the Leibniz Association , the Helmholtz Association , and the Max Planck Society , which are independent of, or only loosely connected to its universities.
One of Europe's successful research, business and technology clusters is based at WISTA in Berlin-Adlershof , with more than 1, affiliated firms, university departments and scientific institutions.
In addition to the university-affiliated libraries, the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin is a major research library.
There are also 86 public libraries in the city. Berlin is known for its numerous cultural institutions, many of which enjoy international reputation.
Young people, international artists and entrepreneurs continued to settle in the city and made Berlin a popular entertainment center in the world.
The expanding cultural performance of the city was underscored by the relocation of the Universal Music Group who decided to move their headquarters to the banks of the River Spree.
As of [update] Berlin is home to museums and more than art galleries. Subsequently, the Altes Museum was built in the Lustgarten.
Apart from the Museum Island, there are many additional museums in the city. The Gemäldegalerie Painting Gallery focuses on the paintings of the "old masters" from the 13th to the 18th centuries, while the Neue Nationalgalerie New National Gallery, built by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe specializes in 20th-century European painting.
The Hamburger Bahnhof , in Moabit , exhibits a major collection of modern and contemporary art. The expanded Deutsches Historisches Museum re-opened in the Zeughaus with an overview of German history spanning more than a millennium.
The Bauhaus Archive is a museum of 20th century design from the famous Bauhaus school. The Jewish Museum has a standing exhibition on two millennia of German-Jewish history.
The Museum für Naturkunde Berlin's natural history museum exhibits natural history near Berlin Hauptbahnhof. It has the largest mounted dinosaur in the world a Giraffatitan skeleton.
A well-preserved specimen of Tyrannosaurus rex and the early bird Archaeopteryx are at display as well. The Brücke Museum features one of the largest collection of works by artist of the early 20th-century expressionist movement.
The site of Checkpoint Charlie , one of the most renowned crossing points of the Berlin Wall, is still preserved. A private museum venture exhibits a comprehensive documentation of detailed plans and strategies devised by people who tried to flee from the East.
The Beate Uhse Erotic Museum claims to be the world's largest erotic museum. The cityscape of Berlin displays large quantities of urban street art.
Berlin today is consistently rated as an important world city for street art culture. Berlin's nightlife has been celebrated as one of the most diverse and vibrant of its kind.
Throughout the s, people in their 20s from all over the world, particularly those in Western and Central Europe , made Berlin's club scene a premier nightlife venue.
After the fall of the Berlin Wall in , many historic buildings in Mitte, the former city centre of East Berlin, were illegally occupied and re-built by young squatters [ citation needed ] and became a fertile ground for underground and counterculture gatherings.
The central boroughs are home to many nightclubs, including the Watergate, Tresor and Berghain. The KitKatClub and several other locations are known for their sexually uninhibited parties.
Clubs are not required to close at a fixed time during the weekends, and many parties last well into the morning, or even all weekend.
The Weekend Club near Alexanderplatz features a roof terrace that allows partying at night. Several venues have become a popular stage for the Neo-Burlesque scene.
Berlin has a long history of gay culture, and is an important birthplace of the LGBT rights movement. Same-sex bars and dance halls operated freely as early as the s, and the first gay magazine, Der Eigene , started in By the s, gays and lesbians had an unprecedented visibility.
The annual Berlin International Film Festival Berlinale with around , admissions is considered to be the largest publicly attended film festival in the world.
Several technology and media art festivals and conferences are held in the city, including Transmediale and Chaos Communication Congress.
The annual Berlin Festival focuses on indie rock, electronic music and synthpop and is part of the International Berlin Music Week.
The focal point is the Brandenburg Gate, where midnight fireworks are centred, but various private fireworks displays take place throughout the entire city.
Partygoers in Germany often toast the New Year with a glass of sparkling wine. Berlin is home to 44 theaters and stages.
The Volksbühne at Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz was built in —14, though the company had been founded in The Berliner Ensemble , famous for performing the works of Bertolt Brecht , was established in The Schaubühne was founded in and moved to the building of the former Universum Cinema on Kurfürstendamm in With a seating capacity of 1, and a stage floor of 2, square metres 30, square feet , the Friedrichstadt-Palast in Berlin Mitte is the largest show palace in Europe.
Its musical director is Daniel Barenboim. The Komische Oper has traditionally specialized in operettas and is also at Unter den Linden.
The Deutsche Oper opened in in Charlottenburg. The city's main venue for musical theater performances are the Theater am Potsdamer Platz and Theater des Westens built in Contemporary dance can be seen at the Radialsystem V.
The Tempodrom is host to concerts and circus inspired entertainment. It also houses a multi-sensory spa experience.
The Admiralspalast in Mitte has a vibrant program of variety and music events. There are seven symphony orchestras in Berlin.
The Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra is one of the preeminent orchestras in the world;  it is housed in the Berliner Philharmonie near Potsdamer Platz on a street named for the orchestra's longest-serving conductor, Herbert von Karajan.
Ivan Fischer is its principal conductor. The Haus der Kulturen der Welt presents exhibitions dealing with intercultural issues and stages world music and conferences.
The cuisine and culinary offerings of Berlin vary greatly. Twelve restaurants in Berlin have been included in the Michelin Guide of , which ranks the city at the top for the number of restaurants having this distinction in Germany.
Many local foods originated from north German culinary traditions and include rustic and hearty dishes with pork, goose, fish, peas, beans, cucumbers, or potatoes.
Typical Berliner fare include popular street food like the Currywurst which gained popularity with post-war construction workers rebuilding the city , Buletten and the Berliner doughnut, known in Berlin as Pfannkuchen.
Berlin is also home to a diverse gastronomy scene reflecting the immigrant history of the city. Turkish and Arab immigrants brought their culinary traditions to the city, such as the lahmajoun and falafel , which have become common fast food staples.
The modern fast food version of the doner kebab sandwich which evolved in Berlin in the s, has since become a favorite dish in Germany and elsewhere in the world.
Zoologischer Garten Berlin , the older of two zoos in the city, was founded in It is the most visited zoo in Europe and presents the most diverse range of species in the world.
With an area of 43 hectares acres and around 22, different plant species, it is one of the largest and most diverse collections of botanical life in the world.
The Volkspark in Friedrichshain , which opened in , is the oldest park in the city, with monuments, a summer outdoor cinema and several sports areas.
Potsdam is on the southwestern periphery of Berlin. The city was a residence of the Prussian kings and the German Kaiser , until The area around Potsdam in particular Sanssouci is known for a series of interconnected lakes and cultural landmarks.
Berlin has established a high-profile as a host city of major international sporting events. In around , Berliners were registered in one of the more than 2, sport and fitness clubs.
Forty-seven elite athletes participated in the Summer Olympics. Berliners would achieve seven gold, twelve silver and three bronze medals.
Several professional clubs representing the most important spectator team sports in Germany have their base in Berlin. Other professional team sport clubs include:.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Berlin, Germany. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 1 July This article is about the capital of Germany.
For other uses, see Berlin disambiguation. Capital and largest city of Germany. Capital city and state in Germany.
Capital city and state. Coat of arms. Main article: History of Berlin. Further information: Timeline of Berlin.
Main article: Geography of Berlin. Mitte , the historical center: Unter den Linden boulevard in the foreground, high-rise buildings of Potsdamer Platz up to the right.
Main article: Architecture in Berlin. Further information: List of sights in Berlin and List of tallest buildings in Berlin.
Main article: Demographics of Berlin. Main articles: German language and Berlinerisch dialect.
Main article: Religion in Berlin. Hedwig's Cathedral. Main articles: Politics of Berlin and Berlin Police.
Main article: Boroughs and neighborhoods of Berlin. See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany.
Main article: Economy of Berlin. Main article: List of sights in Berlin. Berlin Fashion Week. IFA is the world's leading trade show for consumer electronics.
For a more comprehensive list, see List of films set in Berlin. Main article: Media in Berlin. Main article: Transport in Berlin.
Main article: Cycling in Berlin. Main article: Rohrpost in Berlin. Main article: Radio and telecommunication in Berlin.
Main article: Education in Berlin. Main article: Universities and research institutions in Berlin. Main article: Culture in Berlin.
For a more comprehensive list, see List of museums and galleries in Berlin. Main article: Music in Berlin.
See also: German cuisine. The Currywurst Museum. A plate of Currywurst. Invented in Berlin, currywurst is an icon of German popular culture and cuisine.
Main article: Sport in Berlin. Germany portal European Union portal. Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg in German. Retrieved 2 May Retrieved 8 April Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg.
Retrieved 24 November Retrieved 13 September Die Zeit Magazin in German. Leipziger Volkszeitung in German. Retrieved 23 February Gren Berlin.
Lonely Planet. Retrieved 9 October Verein für die Geschichte Berlins. August Retrieved 21 November Modern History Sourcebook. Juni Ausgabe.
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